Quase a terminar este périplo à Ética da Autenticidade por Charles Taylor com recurso aos highlights retalhados (*) de "kgspencer". Nesta entrada: arte, moral, academês, cultura popular e high.
*) Haveremos do fazer proper quando tirarmos o tempo de comentar na primeira pessoa as leituras já feitas.
Taylor interprets post-Romantic versions of the self to involve a curious blend of self-discovery and self-expression: we must become what we really are in our own individual, original way, yet this becoming needs some form of expression to be fully realized. This link between self-discovery and expression accounts for the increasingly revered role of the artist after Romanticism as well as a shift thinking what "art" is.
Mover as pessoas, uma espécie de sentimento estético desligado da representação porque o artista é puro e pouco convencional, quase imoral: originalidade como inimigo da conformidade.
Whereas art’s primary duty previously was mimesis, the representation of reality, its job increasingly comes to be seen as one of moving people: The specificity of art and beauty cease to be defined in terms of the reality or its manner of depiction and come to be identified by the kinds of feeling they arouse in use. In a word, aesthetics is born. On the other hand, the artist as creative comes to be valorized as a purest crystallization of the self-making person [and] this emphasis on self-making blends into a generalized anti-conventionalism, and "self-definition comes early to be contrasted to morality". The very idea of originality, and the associated notion that the enemy of authenticity can be social conformity, forces on us the idea that authenticity will have to struggle against some externally imposed rules.
De ideias chegamos àqueles que as têm e as práticas que lhes sugerem, com os mais maluquinhos a ter as ideias mais estranhas.
Authenticity requires the deepest aspects to be embraced and brought to light, but "morality as normally understood obviously involves crushing much that is elemental and instinctive in us, many of our deepest and most powerful desires", an explicitly anti-moral ethos develops that embraces immorality, such as the cult of violence that pervaded various early 20th Century aesthetic movements and, incidentally, helped lay the foundations of Fascism.
Não podemos filosofar de fascismos sem o Frederico à chamada, a quem Taylor acrescenta à sua habitual falácia em autenticidade uma outra de lógica.
Taylor faults the Nietzschean-cum-Postmodern side of authenticity for stressing the constructed, creative side of our "expressive languages" to the point of embracing amoralism, but they ignore the horizon of significance and dialogic setting that binds us to others. This notion of authenticity insofar as it embraces radical freedom is just the problem: self-determining freedom pushed to its limit doesn’t recognize any boundaries, anything given that I have to respect in my exercise of self-determining choice, and the consequence is the erasure of horizons of significance.
At one moment, we understand our situation as one of high tragedy, along in a silent universe, without intrinsic meaning, condemned to create value. But at a later moment, the same doctrine, by its own inherent bent, yields a flattened world, in which there aren’t very meaningful choices because there aren’t any crucial issues. With the fading of horizons of significance, self-determination takes on a more important role, leading to the vicious circle of valorizing choice for in a degraded version of authenticity.
Cultura popular, hight, academês.
E no tópico de degraded versions of authenticity, o extra especialmente fofinho a tópicos habituais neste espaço. Escolhemos fechar capítulo nesses, algures entre o resumo so far e o fuck you académico onde banda desenhada rasteira se torna paper para tese de encher repositório.
What makes the ideal of authenticity devolve into the culture of self-fulfillment? The social causes for the slide are several, [as] contemporary culture sanctions both i) "social atomism" and ii) "radical anthropocentrism", regarding iii) social relationships as instrumental to self-fulfillment and iv) "neglecting or delegitimating demands that come from beyond our own desires or aspirations, be they from history, tradition, society, nature". However there are "reasons internal to the ideal of authenticity that facilitate the slide", A) a popular one and B) an "high" cultural one - and the dominant trends in post-modernism focus on A at the expense of B.
Citados como subscrevendo A) sobre B): Nietzsche, Baudelaire, Marinetti e os Futuristas, Antonin Artaud, Georges Bataille, Foucault, Derrida.
A theme throughout some of these thinker's work (especially Foucault and Derrida) is a questioning of all values and the implicit or explicit rejection of standards imposed by the world. They leave "the agent, even with all his or her doubts of the ‘self,’ with a sense of untrammeled power and freedom before a world that imposes no standards, ready to enjoy the ‘free play,’ or to indulge in an aesthetics of the self".
It is in university students that the high-cultural and the popular slides to subjectivism meet, and the academic slide "further strengthens the self-centered modes, gives them a certain patina of deeper philosophical justification".